Cloud Computing











YEAR:- 2010



This is to certify that ???DIVYANSH??? (2802713004), Student of B.Tech,
Final year Information Technology , has given colloquium on the topic ??? Cloud Computing ???.

( ) ( )
Ms.Yogita Chhabra Prof. Yogesh Kumar Mittal
(Lecturer) (HoD IT)


It gives me a great sense of pleasure to present this colloquium report. I want to express my special debt of gratitude to my guide ???Lecturer Ms.Yogita Chhabra???, Department of Information Technology, Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College, Ghaziabad for his constant support, guidance, encouragement, and much needed motivation. His sincerity, thoroughness and perseverance has been a constant source of inspiration for me.

I also take the opportunity to acknowledge the contribution of Prof. Yogesh Mittal, Head of Department, Information Technology for his full support and assistance.

Last but not the least, I acknowledge my friends for their contribution in the completion of this report.



Roll NO.: 2802713004

Date: 27/09/2010



1. Introduction 5

2. Cloud Computing architecture 8

3. Key Features of Cloud Computing 10

4. Layers 13

5. Components 15

6. Types 16

7. Standards 18

8. Case study 19

9. Issues 22

10. Conclusion 24

11. References 25


Cloud computing is Internet-based computing whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand, like the electricity grid

Cloud computing is an emerging approach to shared infrastructure in which large pools of systems are linked together to provide IT services.

Cloud computing is a resource delivery and usage model, it means get resource (Hardware, software) via network. The network of providing resource is called ???Cloud??™. The hardware resource in the ???Cloud??™ seems scalable infinitely and can be used whenever.

The simple definition of cloud computing is that it involves using Web-based computing tools and storing information on remote servers maintained and operated by another company.

??? The cloud is a metaphor for the Internet, based on how it is depicted in computer network diagrams, and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals.

When talking about a cloud computing system, its helpful to divide it into two sections: the front end and the back end. They connect to each other through a network, usually the Internet. The front end is the side the computer user, or client, sees. The back end is the “cloud” section of the system.

??? The front end includes the clients computer (or computer network) and the application required to access the cloud computing system. Not all cloud computing systems have the same user interface. Services like Web-based e-mail programs leverage existing Web browsers like Internet Explorer or Firefox. Other systems have unique applications that provide network access to clients.

??? On the back end of the system are the various computers, servers and data storage systems that create the “cloud” of computing services. In theory, a cloud computing system could include practically any computer program you can imagine, from data processing to video games. Usually, each application will have its own dedicated server.

Clouds are vast resource pools with on-demand resource allocation. The degree of on-demandness can vary from phone calls to web forms to actual APIs that directly requisition servers.

Cloud computing is a paradigm shift following the shift from mainframe to client??“server in the early 1980s. Details are abstracted from the users, who no longer have need for expertise in, or control over, the technology infrastructure “in the cloud” that supports them. Cloud computing describes a new supplement, consumption, and delivery model for IT services based on the Internet, and it typically involves over-the-Internet provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources. It is a by-product and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet. This frequently takes the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if it were a program installed locally on their own computer.

A pool of highly scalable, abstracted infrastructure, capable of hosting end-customer
applications, that is billed by consumption

An emerging computing paradigm where data and services reside in massively scalable data
centres and can be ubiquitously accessed from any connected devices over the internet.
Cloud computing really is accessing resources and services needed to perform functions with dynamically changing needs.



Cloud architecture comprises hardware and software designed by a cloud architect who typically works for a cloud integrator. It involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces, usually web services. Cloud architecture extends to the client, where web browsers and/or software applications access cloud applications.


Cloud architecture the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing, typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces, usually web services. This resembles the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs each doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts. The two most significant components of cloud computing architecture are known as the front end and the back end. The front end is the part seen by the client, i.e. the computer user. This includes the client??™s network (or computer) and the applications used to access the cloud via a user interface such as a web browser. The back end of the cloud computing architecture is the ???cloud??™ itself, comprising various computers, servers and data storage devices.

The success of cloud computing is largely based on the effective implementation of its architecture. In cloud computing, architecture is not just based on how the application will work with the intended users. Cloud computing requires an intricate interaction with the hardware which is very essential to ensure uptime of the application.


o Agility

??? improves with users ability to rapidly and inexpensively re-provision technological infrastructure resources.

o Cost

??? it claimed to be greatly reduced and capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure.This ostensibly lowers barriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house).

o Device and location independence

??? It enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC, mobile). As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere.

o Multi-tenancy

It enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for

??? Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.),

??? Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels)

??? Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10??“20% utilized.

o Reliability

??? is improved if multiple redundant sites are used, which makes well designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.Nonetheless, many major cloud computing services have suffered outages, and IT and business managers can at times do little when they are affected.

o Scalability

??? via dynamic (“on-demand”) provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis near real-time, without users having to engineer for peak loads. Performance is monitored, and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. One of the most important new methods for overcoming performance bottlenecks for a large class of applications is data parallel programming on a distributed data grid.

o Security

??? could improve due to centralization of data,increased security-focused resources, etc., but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data, and the lack of security for stored kernels.Security is often as good as or better than under traditional systems, in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. Providers typically log accesses, but accessing the audit logs themselves can be difficult or impossible. Furthermore, the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area and / or number of devices.

o Maintenance

??? cloud computing applications are easier to maintain, since they dont have to be installed on each users computer. They are easier to support and to improve since the changes reach the clients instantly.

o Metering

??? cloud computing resources usage should be measurable and should be metered per client and application on daily, weekly, monthly, and annual basis. This will enable clients on choosing the vendor cloud on cost and reliability (QoS)


o Client

??? A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery, or that is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and that, in either case, is essentially useless without it. Examples include some computers, phones and other devices, operating systems and browsers.

o Application

Cloud application services or “Software as a Service (SaaS)” deliver software as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customers own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. People tend to use the terms ???SaaS??™ and ???cloud??™ interchangeably, when in fact they are 2 different things.

??? Network-based access to, and management of, commercially available (i.e., not custom) software

??? Activities that are managed from central locations rather than at each customers site, enabling customers to access applications remotely via the Web

??? Application delivery that typically is closer to a one-to-many model (single instance, multi-tenant architecture) than to a one-to-one model, including architecture, pricing, partnering, and management characteristics

??? Centralized feature updating, which obviates the need for downloadable patches and upgrades.

o Platform

??? Cloud platform services or “Platform as a Service (PaaS)” deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications.It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers.

o Infrastructure

??? Cloud infrastructure services, also known as “Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)”, delivers computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service. Rather than purchasing servers, software, data-center space or network equipment, clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis and amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity.

o Server

??? The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services, including multi-core processors, cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings.


|Cloud computing Components |
| | | |
|Applications |Facebook? ?· Google Apps? ?· SalesForce? ?· Microsoft Online | |
| | | |
|Client |Browser(Chrome)? ?· Firefox? ?· Cloud? ?· Mobile (Android? ?· iPhone)? ?· Netbook (EeePC? ?· MSI Wind)? ?· Nettop (CherryPal? ?· | |
| |Zonbu) | |
| | | |
|Infrastructure |BitTorrent ? ?· EC2? ?· GoGrid? ?· Sun Grid? ?· 3tera | |
| | | |
|Platforms |App Engine? ?· Azure? ?· Mosso? ?· SalesForce | |
| | | |
|Services |Alexa? ?· FPS? ?· MTurk? ?· SQS | |
| | | |
|Storage |S3? ?· SimpleDB? ?· SQL Services | |
| | | |
|Standards |Ajax? ?· Atom? ?· HTML 5? ?· REST | |



10.1 Public cloud
Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense, whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained, self-service basis over the Internet, via web applications/web services, from an off-site third-party provider who shares resources and bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis.
10.2 Private cloud
Private cloud and internal cloud are neologisms that some vendors have recently used to describe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private networks. These products claim to “deliver some benefits of cloud computing without the pitfalls”, capitalizing on data security, corporate governance, and reliability concerns.
While an analyst predicted in 2008 that private cloud networks would be the future of corporate IT, there is some uncertainty whether they are a reality even within the same firm. Analysts also claim that within five years a “huge percentage” of small and medium enterprises will get most of their computing resources from external cloud computing providers as they “will not have economies of scale to make it worth staying in the IT business” or be able to afford private clouds.
The term has also been used in the logical rather than physical sense, for example in reference to platform as service offerings, though such offerings including Microsofts Azure Services Platform are not available for on-premises deployment.
10.3 Hybrid cloud
A hybrid cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers “will be typical for most enterprises”.


Cloud standards, a number of existing, typically lightweight, open standards, have facilitated the growth of cloud computing, including:

??? Application

o Communications (HTTP, XMPP)

o Security (OAuth, OpenID, SSL/TLS)

o Syndication (Atom)

??? Client

o Browsers (AJAX)

o Offline (HTML 5)

??? Implementations

o Virtualization (OVF)

??? Platform

o Solution stacks (LAMP)

??? Service

o Data (XML, JSON)

o Web Services (REST)

??? Storage

o Database(Amazon Simple DB, Google App Engine BigTable Datastore)

o Network attached storage (MobileMe iDisk, Nirvanix CloudNAS)

o Synchronization (Live Mesh Live Desktop component, MobileMe push functions)

o Web service (Amazon Simple Storage Service, Nirvanix SDN)

Case Study

[pic] (NYSE:? CRM) is a vendor of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) solutions, which it delivers to businesses over the internet using the software as a service model
Origins was founded in 1999 by former Oracle executive Marc Benioff. In June 2004, the company went public on the New York Stock Exchange under the stock symbol CRM. Initial investors in were Marc Benioff, Larry Ellison, Halsey Minor, Magdalena Yesil and Igor Sill, Geneva Venture Partners.

Current status is headquartered in San Francisco, California, with regional headquarters in Dublin (covering Europe, Middle East, and Africa), Singapore (covering Asia Pacific less Japan), and Tokyo (covering Japan). Other major offices are in Toronto, New York, London, Sydney, and San Mateo, California. has its services translated into 15 different languages and currently has 43,600 customers and over 1,000,000 subscribers. In 2008, ranked 43rd on the list of largest software companies in the world.
Following the Federal takeover of Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae in September 2008, the S&P 500 removed the two mortgage giants after Wednesday, September 10, 2008, and added Fastenal and to the index, effective after Friday, September 12, 2008

Products and Services
Customer Relationship Management
Salesforce.coms CRM solution is broken down into several applications: Sales, Service & Support, Partner Relationship Management, Marketing, Content, Ideas and Analytics. Platform
Salesforce.coms Platform-as-a-Service product is known as the Platform. The platform allows external developers to create add-on applications that integrate into the main Salesforce application and are hosted on salesforce.coms infrastructure.
These applications are built using Apex (a proprietary Java-like programming language for the Platform) and Visualforce (an XML-like syntax for building user interfaces in HTML, AJAX or Flex).
Launched in 2005, AppExchange is a directory of applications built for Salesforce by third-party developers which users can purchase and add to their Salesforce environment. As of September 2008, there are over 800 applications available from over 450 ISVs.
Salesforce users can customize their CRM application. In the system, there are tabs such as “Contacts”, “Reports”, and “Accounts”. Each tab contains associated information. For example, “Contacts” has fields like First Name, Last Name, Email, etc.

Customization can be done on each tab, by adding user-defined custom fields.
Customization can also be done at the “platform” level by adding customized applications to a instance that is adding sets of customized / novel tabs for specific vertical- or function-level (Finance, Human Resources, etc) features.
Web Services
In addition to the web interface, Salesforce offers a Web Services API that enables integration with other systems
CLOUD (Operating System)

Cloud is a “browser based Operating system” created by Good OS LLC??™, a Los Angeles-based corporation. The company initially launched a Linux distribution called gOS which is based on Ubuntu, now in its third incarnation

Browser and Operating System
Cloud is a combination of a simplified operating system that runs just a web browser, providing access to a variety of web-based applications that allow the user to perform many simple tasks without booting a full-scale operating system. Because of its simplicity, Cloud can boot in just a few seconds. The operating system is designed for Netbooks, Mobile Internet Devices, and PCs that are mainly used to browse the Internet. From Cloud the user can quickly boot into the main OS, because Cloud continues booting the main OS in the background.
Combining a browser with a basic operating system also allows the use of cloud computing, in which applications and data “live and run” on the Internet instead of on the hard drive.
Cloud can be installed and used together with other operating systems, or can act as a standalone operating system. When used as a standalone operating system, hardware requirements are relatively low.
At the moment Cloud is only officially available built into the GIGABYTE M912 Touch Screen Netbook, but a Private Beta test is currently (early February, 2009) running.

Early reviews compared the operating systems user interface to Mac OS X and noted the similarity of its browser to Google Chrome, although it is actually based on a modified Mozilla Firefox browser.
o The Cloud model has been criticized by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the Cloud services control, and thus, can monitor at will, lawfully or unlawfully, the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. Instances such as the secret NSA program, working with AT&T, and Verizon, which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens, causes uncertainty among privacy advocates, and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to “harmonise” the legal environment, providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select “availability zones.”

Open source
o Open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. In November 2007, the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License, a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network.

Open standards
o Most cloud providers expose APIs which are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. Some vendors have adopted others APIs and there are a number of open standards under development, including the OGFs Open Cloud Computing Interface. The Open Cloud Consortium (OCC) is working to develop consensus on early cloud computing standards and practices.

o The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue which may be delaying its adoption.Some argue that customer data is more secure when managed internally, while others argue that cloud providers have a strong incentive to maintain trust and as such employ a higher level of security.

The Cloud Security Alliance is a non-profit organization formed to promote the use of best practices for providing security assurance within Cloud Computing.


Cloud Computing is a vast topic and the above report does not give a high level introduction to it. It is certainly not possible in the limited space of a report to do justice to these technologies. What is in store for this technology in the near future Well, Cloud Computing is leading the industry??™s endeavor to bank on this revolutionary technology.
Cloud Computing Brings Possibilities??¦??¦..
??? Increases business responsiveness
??? Accelerates creation of new services via rapid prototyping capabilities
??? Reduces acquisition complexity via service oriented approach
??? Uses IT resources efficiently via sharing and higher system utilization
??? Reduces energy consumption
??? Handles new and emerging workloads
??? Scales to extreme workloads quickly and easily
??? Simplifies IT management
??? Platform for collaboration and innovation
??? Cultivates skills for next generation workforce
Today, with such cloud-based interconnection seldom in evidence, cloud computing might be more accurately described as “sky computing,” with many isolated clouds of services which IT customers must plug into individually. On the other hand, as virtualization and SOA permeate the enterprise, the idea of loosely coupled services running on an agile, scalable infrastructure should eventually make every enterprise a node in the cloud. Its a long-running trend with a far-out horizon. But among big metatrends, cloud computing is the hardest one to argue with in the long term.
Cloud Computing is a technology which took the software and business world by storm. The much deserved hype over it will continue for years to come.




[3].–Chappell. PDF